In Hattusas, hitittes location, can be contemplated one of the more beautiful neohititas reliefs of Turkey, that represents a king and the God of the fertility. In a narrow defile of the Yesilirmak river and at skirts of the Mount Harçena is Amasya, one of the most beautiful cities of Turkey whose plane of theconstruction dates from 6000 BC . From the steep rock the ruins of ciudadela arise, in whose interior an Ottoman palace and a secret underground passage have left. Excavated on the rock, the Roman tombs are illuminated at night, creating an image espectacular. Traditional Turkish wood mansions or "konaks", in the North shore of the Yesilirmak River, in the district of Hatuniye, have been recovered to recover their old splendor, transforming themselves into precious pensions.
One of prettiest one Hazeranlar Konagi, XIX century, at the moment lodges a gallery of art in first stage and the Ethnographic Museum in the second. The city of Tokat goes back to the 4000 BC. Between its main historical buildings they are the ruins of a castle with 28 towers, the Garipler Mosque, of XI century and a seljukie bridge. Sivas has been lived from the hitittes, and according to local sources, later it became key center of the phrigian Empire. Sivas, an unfortunate kingdom that when paracer, was buried in the historical forgetfulness. With greater certainty it can be spoken of the Roman time of Sivas, when it was well-known like Megapolis and later like Sebastaea, name that finally ended up giving, by deformation, the one of Sivas.
The authentic apogee of the city took place during the seljuk time, after the battle of Manzicerta, period of which a great amount of architectonic rest is conserved. Sivas was in divesas occasions capital seljuk during the sultan of Rum, until it happened to ilhanlians hands of mongolian at the end of century XIII. The Ottomans burst in into 1396, but 4 years were expelled by mongolians later, during the government of Timur, that devastated great part of the city after a site of 18 days and happened through the sword to the Christians of the place. The Ottomans returned in 1408 and Sivas practically disappeared of history until century XX.
Urfa, "City of the Prophets": Mardin that is a city constructed on a hill that almost dominates the plain of aerial Mesopotamia to Vista, is offered like a very typical unit of the urbanization of the Southeastern region with its houses without tile roof. In Urfa they deserve a visit the mosque Ulu Cami of century XI constructed during the time of feudal Saltuk and the old Madraza, at the moment turned Museum. The syrian Monastery Deyrulzafaran located to a distance of 10 km. of the city, is another interesting site that is worth the trouble to visit. Urfa, that is well-known as the City of the Prophets is a region that lived all history on Anatolia the city that was called Edesa during the time of Alexander the Great, was dominated by the seljuks during century XI; during the two First Crossed (1098-1146) it was administered by 4 French counts; and I form part of the Ottoman empire in century XVI moment at which its name was changed by the one of "Ruhá".
Balikligol (the lake of the Fish): It is a pool fed by waters of the lagoons Halil-ül Rahman and Ayn-el Zeliha connected by channels, where thousands live on carps that consider themselves sagradas. The mosques of Halil-ül Rahmen and Rizvaniye near the same pool deserve a visit.
Mountain Nemrut (Kahta - Adiyaman): In century IV BC the great conqueror Alexander the Great, it happened to the Earth of Anatolia to conquer Smaller Asia and to save the town of Anatolia of the Persian hegemony. It is date is also the principle of the hellenistic time. The ideal of Alexander was to become universal emperor and this sound made think him about a mixture of the races. With it is idea of helenizar conquered earth, Alexander forced to thousands of his soldiers to marry with the women of those native towns. As a result of this effort, during the period between centuries I BC and AD. The Kingdom of Comagene was founded on the region at the moment called Adiyaman and thus a hellenistic mixed culture arose - Persian.
Antioco I, the most important king of civilization, commanded to construct tumulus undertaker for itself in Mount Nemrut, one of elevated summits more of the region, to a height of 2100m. and made fix the circumference of this tumulus of 50 m. of break, taken of small stones, like a sanctuary adorned with blocks of stones and colossal statues of divinities, whose heads measure 2m. of stop. Antioco made carve not only the statues of the greco-Persian Gods like Apollo, Tyche, Heracles and Zeus, but also its own statue, since it was seen like a deity. The Nemrut mount, that in some cultural means is considered like the eighth wonder of the world, has a mysterious beauty that fascinates all the visitors.
Malatya is a city with much activity. The Archaeological Museum lodges the new discoveries of the region of the low Euphrates, that date from the eras neolithic and calcolitic. Mardin has a spectacular aspect, with motley layers of houses, mansions, mosques and churches that rise interminably over the plain and hang below a gigantic rock, presided over by one ciudadela. The probable Roman origins of Mardin the wars jumble of and conquest are lost in that forms the past historical of the region, whereas the recent history of the city is tie at the beginnings of the christianity. The first Christians who were based here were orthodox Syrians who arrived in century III AD. At the present time, are eleven churches hidden in the less important passages of Mardin, as which eight still serve a declining and migratory community.
Deyr-Az-Zaferan: (also known like Deyrülzafran or the "monastery saffron" by the yellowish rock on which is constructed) is the religious community orthodox more accessible Syrian of those than still exists in this zone. Founded on year 493 AD, from 1160 to the decade of 1920 she was host of the Syria orthodox patriarch, who since then fixed his residence an Damascus. Antakya, the Biblical city called Antioch, is located in the Asi river (Orontes) in a fertile plain surrounded by high mountains. It was in this city where the Christian name was coined for the first time. Its museum lodges one of the richest collections of Roman mosaics of the world. Most of these fantastic stone paintings they were discovered in the excavations of Antakya and the neighborhoods of Daphne. Outside the city, the Grotto of Saint Peter is the church constructed in a cave from which the apostles preached for the first time and where the Christian community was established.
Cappadocia: The fantastic landscapes of the region of Turkey that formerly was called Cappadocia are the result of a orogenic whim, in which it has taken divides the powerful action of volcanoes, rain and the time. The volcanic sediments that conform the crust of the ground of Cappadocia have undergone during eras the ferocious erosion of the climatic elements of the plateau Anatolia, little by little creating an unreal scenery populated with formation stony improbable, own of the world of the dreams that of the real one. As well, the men have taken part to torment still more these landscapes, drilling their entrails to carve churches and monasteries, pestering the rock walls and grounds to construct to labyrinth underground cities. The rock architecture reaches in the Cappadocia its apotheosis.
Istambul: Old capital of three successive empires - Roman, Byzantin, Ottoman, Istanbul is the economic center of the Republic of Turkey. A continuous parade of oil tankers and merchant boats crosses to newspaper waters of the Bosphorus. It is in fact, the variety of Istanbul which fascinates its visitors: the museums, churches, palaces, great mosques, bazaars and the views of natural beauty seem inexhaustible.
Day 1: Ankara (via Istanbul) - Flight with destination Ankara, vía Istanbul. Overnight in hotel.
Day 2: Ankara - Hattusa. Visit to Anatolian civilization museum in Ankara. Visit to Hattusas; capital of Hitites; first satate of Anatolia (XIX-XII BC) Overnight in hotel.
Day 3: Hattusa - Amasya. Yazilikaya; visit to open air temple of Hitites. Visit to Alacahöyük; National Comercial Center of Hitites. A short break in Corum. Amasya; is realm city of Ottoman. Overnight in hotel.
Day 4: Amasya - Sivas. Realm tombs of Pontos, mosque of Beyazit, visit to traditional house of Hazeranlar in Amasya Basilica grotto-stalactita in Pazar and archeology museum in Tashan in Tokat. Overnight in hotel.
Day 5: Sivas - Malatya. Sifaiye Medresesi. Visit to Cifte Minare Medresesi Gök Medrese , in the past they were theology schools. Congress house in Sivas. Malatya is modern city of Turkey. Ruins of Euphrates, were exhibited in the archeology museum , they dated back neolitic and calcolitic. Overnight in hotel.
Day 6: Malatya - Kahta. Sunrise on Nemrut; tombs Tumulus of Kommamge. Overnight in hotel.
Day 7: Kahta - Urfa. Visit the Urfa. The city of prophets and culture of arab-mezopotamia pool of holy fishes. Visit the cave where prophet Abraham was born. Drive to village of Harran, city of prophet Abraham. See fortress, islamic school and curious beehive-shaped adobe houses. Overnight in hotel.
Day 8: Urfa - Mardin - Urfa. Drive to Mardin. The city of armenian religion . The mixed culture of arab-kurd-armenian. Visit the Armenian church of Kirklar (40 martyrs of Cappadocia) and armenian monastery of Dar-ul Zaferan. The bazaar of vegitable, textil, tea, coffee, ect., mosque Ulucami (Grand). Return to Urfa. Overnight in hotel.
Day 9: Urfa - Antakya. Visit the archeology museum. Possible to eat Baklava (It' made from layers of thin pastry and walnuts, baked and covered in syrup) and walnut of Gaziantep. Hitites ruins of Aslantas in Karatas. Saint Peter church; the first church of Christians. Overnight in hotel
Day 10: Antakya - Cappadocia. The biggest mozaic museum in the world Antiokea and visit to Titus tunel near Samandag and coast of Mediterrenean. Overnight in hotel.
Day 11: Cappadocia - Soganli. After breakfast, drive to the underground city of Ozluce (Zeylia) christians used the underground city at IV century as refuge to save of the persecutions. Drive to valley of Soganli for a colorful bond with innumerable chapels, churches, houses and tombs. Possible to see follow the development of the byzantine painting between the VI and XII centuries. Pigeon houses and daily life of the typical town of Anatolia. (Excursion 2- 3 hours) Overnight in hotel
Day 12: Cappadocia - Kizilvadi Valley (Red Valley). After breakfast, drive to imagination valley (Devrent), where the stone eroded by the wind forms denominated tips, cones and obeliscos fairy chimneys. The valley of the monks (Pasabagi). The Kizilvadi valley (Red) is amazingly beautiful, specially during the daytime. Then is the Uzumlu Church of century IX (daily excursion 4-5 hours). Overnight in hotel.
Day 13: Cappadocia - Istanbul. Transfer to the Kayseri (ASR) airport to flight Istanbul. Transfer to hotel. Overnight in Istanbul.
Day 14: Istanbul - Free day.
Day 15: Istanbul - Transfer to airport.
Also see tour packages in:
Middle East Turkey History Whiz Archeology/History