In Mesopotamia is between the rivers Tigris and the Euphrates, the coffer of Noah in Ararat, the Trojan horse in the borders of the Aegean Sea, the civilization of the hitites in the heart of the Halys river, the temple of Artemis or the mausoleum of Halicarnasus that are two wonders of the world. King Midas turned everything into gold, Thet Alexander Great and Saint Paul are the most famous travellers and the virgin Mary completed her trip in Éphesus. Hagia Sophía, Byzantine, the eternal residence of sultans Ottoman; it is the Topkapi palace. The gardens of Tulips, the Turkish bath, the turquoise water beaches, the fairy chimneys of Cappadocia, the Bosphorus and Istanbul, the modern country of the Ataturk. Anatolia; it is the cradle of the civilizations and bridge between Asia and Europe. In Hattusas, hitittes location, can be contemplated one of the more beautiful neohititas reliefs of Turkey, that represents a king and the God of the fertility. In a narrow defile of the Yesilirmak river and at skirts of the Mount Harçena is Amasya, one of the most beautiful cities of Turkey whose plane of theconstruction dates from 6000 BC . From the steep rock the ruins of ciudadela arise, in whose interior an Ottoman palace and a secret underground passage have left. Excavated on the rock, the Roman tombs are illuminated at night, creating an image espectacular. Traditional Turkish wood mansions or "konaks", in the North shore of the Yesilirmak River, in the district of Hatuniye, have been recovered to recover their old splendor, transforming themselves into precious pensions. One of prettiest one Hazeranlar Konagi, XIX century, at the moment lodges a gallery of art in first stage and the Ethnographic Museum in the second. The city of Tokat goes back to the 4000 BC. Between its main historical buildings they are the ruins of a castle with 28 towers, the Garipler Mosque, of XI century and a seljukie bridge. Sivas has been lived from the hitittes, and according to local sources, later it became key center of the phrigian Empire. Sivas, an unfortunate kingdom that when paracer, was buried in the historical forgetfulness. With greater certainty it can be spoken of the Roman time of Sivas, when it was well-known like Megapolis and later like Sebastaea, name that finally ended up giving, by deformation, the one of Sivas.
Sumela Trabzon: The more important historical place of Trabzon is without a doubt the Sumela Monastery. The monastery is located above a valley inside the Pontic mountains and reached after a pleasant ride with incredible beauty of nature. After arriving until certain height by automobile, it is possible to be continued to climb until the monastery up a winding footpath that zigzags between the forests. While one approaches the monastery, has the sensation to be living in an unreal world and is astonished before the monastery that seems as if it had lowered from the sky to stick to the flank of the cliff. Until now it has been impossible to understand how the man managed to make a so colossal construction in a so steep place, using the average technology of the 6 th century . The Monastery of Sumela, that acquired its present form with the annexes constructed during century XIV, is one of the more important historical and tourist wealth of Turkey. do not forget to drink the cold water its sacred source.
Kars: The initial settlement date is not known, but Kars gained its importance in history as it became the capital for the Bagratid family in the 10 th century. Even later, when the capital was moved to Ani, Kars continued being an important city. In century XI, it was dominated by the seljukes; at the beginning of XIII century it was taken by the Georgian and finally at the beginning of XVI century , like all the rest of the Eastern Anatolia, comprise of the Ottoman empire. Kars was under Russian rule between 1878 and 1917 and during that numerous period very important projects of urbanization were carried out, therefore Kars resembles a typical Russian cities. The perpendicular streets and the wide cobblestone roads. The most important works of Kars are: XVI century citadel, and Armenian church of XI century and the museum of Kars.
Ani: The ruins of the old Ani are located next to the Arpaçay river, that draws up the border between Turkey and Armenia. Ani, that is the more important historical zone in the Kars region, Ani kept its strategic importance all the time since it was built as a passage between Anatolia and Asia. When Armenian king Ashot III made it the capital of the Bagratio dynasty, many projects of urbanization were made and the city was surrounded by double rows of walls with eight doors. At the moment the door of Lions is used to enter the city and the view is really magnificent. The other side the towers of the Armenian border are seen. The inner fortress which was built in the VII th century is still intact. Between the historical buildings of Ani that can be visited most important is the Great Cathedral is significant with its cruciform plan,, three naves and domes ; the outside of the cathedral is decorated with carvings and stone work is excellent. Towards the East of the city is the Church of Saintn Gregory, constructed in XIII century with cruciform plan and it was covered with a conical dome. There are carvings on the outside and frescoes inside the church.
Dogubeyazit: The palace of Ishak Pasha, on the foot of the Ararat mount the palace of Ishak Pasha Saray, located near Dogubeyazit, in the Eastern end of Anatolia, was constructed in 1784 by the sanjaco (governor) Ishak Pasha on a filled up land of 7600 square meters, since in the region a sufficiently high space for the accomplishment of this project did not exist. It is masterpiece constructed of red clay stone and it resembles the palaces of Topkapi and Edirne. The high one minaret of its mosque is visible from very far.
Van: The old city of Tushpa was one of the most important cities of the old region of Vaspucaran. The present city of Van, located to a height of 1700 m., extends in the Eastern border of the lake Van, greatest of Turkey, where the winter lasts 6 months. Urartu is region gained great importance during the time of the civilization and the city of Van reached a high level of civilization. Urartian got weak as a result of Scthian and Cimmerian attacks in the VII century BC. and by the 6th century BC they fell under the rule of Medes. LaterPersians, the Macedonians (Alexander the Great) the pontos, the seleucos, the Romans, the Byzantine, the Armenians, the seljuk and to starting in the XVI th century by the Ottomans.
Akdamar Island: It is a small island located to a distance of 4 km of the border and to few kilometers of the town of Gevas on the highway of Van-Tatvan. On the small barren island the church of Ahtamar, a small masterpiece of famous architect Manuel rises the Monk, constructed during century X by the king of Vaspucaran, Gagik I. The red clay stone was used in the construction of this church and it has domes, a cruciform plan, and three entrances. A chapel in the 13 th century and a large front section in the 14th century were added to the church. During Armenian patriarchy was mved here in the 10th century. The outside walls are decoreted with scenes from the Old Testament. The figures look like sculptures under the sun light, in the shade these figures seem almost to disappear. The inside walls of the church have frescoes from the Bible. Byzantine influence is clearly seen in the wall pictures.
Urfa 'City of the Prophets': Mardin that is a city constructed on a hill that almost dominates the plain of aerial Mesopotamia to Vista, is offered like a very typical unit of the urbanization of the Southeastern region with its houses without tile roof. In Urfa they deserve a visit the mosque Ulu Cami of century XI constructed during the time of feudal Saltuk and the old Madraza, at the moment turned Museum. The syrian Monastery Deyrulzafaran located to a distance of 10 km. of the city, is another interesting site that is worth the trouble to visit. Urfa, that is well-known as the City of the Prophets' ' ' is a region that lived all history on Anatolia the city that was called Edesa during the time of Alexander the Great, was dominated by the seljuks during century XI; during the two First Crossed (1098-1146) it was administered by 4 French counts; and I form part of the Ottoman empire in century XVI moment at which its name was changed by the one of `'Ruhá'.
Mount Nemrut (Kahta - Adiyaman): In century IV BC the great conqueror Alexander the Great, it happened to the Earth of Anatolia to conquer Smaller Asia and to save the town of Anatolia of the Persian hegemony. It is date is also the principle of the hellenistic time. The ideal of Alexander was to become universal emperor and this sound made think him about a mixture of the races. With it is idea of helenizar conquered earth, Alexander forced to thousands of his soldiers to marry with the women of those native towns. As a result of this effort, during the period between centuries I BC and AD. The Kingdom of Comagene was founded on the region at the moment called Adiyaman and thus a Hellenistic mixed culture arose - Persian. Antioco I, the most important king of civilization, commanded to construct tumulus undertaker for itself in Mount Nemrut, one of elevated summits more of the region, to a height of 2100 m. and made fix the circumference of this tumulus of 50 m. of break, taken of small stones, like a sanctuary adorned with blocks of stones and colossal statues of divinities, whose heads measure 2 m. of stop. Antioco made carve not only the statues of the greco-Persian Gods like Apollo, Tyche, Heracles and Zeus, but also its own statue, since it was seen like a deity. The Nemrut mount, that in some cultural means is considered like the eighth wonder of the world, has a mysterious beauty that fascinates all the visitors. Malatya is a city with much activity. The Archaeological Museum lodges the new discoveries of the region of the low Euphrates, that date from the eras neolithic and calcolitic. Mardin has a spectacular aspect, with motley layers of houses, mansions, mosques and churches that rise interminably over the plain and hang below a gigantic rock, presided over by one ciudadela. The probable Roman origins of Mardin the wars jumble of and conquest are lost in that forms the past historical of the region, whereas the recent history of the city is tie at the beginnings of the christianity. The first Christians who were based here were orthodox Syrians who arrived in century III AD. At the present time, are eleven churches hidden in the less important passages of Mardin, as which eight still serve a declining and migratory community.
Cappadocia: The fantastic landscapes of the region of Turkey that formerly was called Cappadocia are the result of a orogenic whim, in which it has taken divides the powerful action of volcanos, rain and the time. The volcanic sediments that conform the crust of the ground of Cappadocia have undergone during eras the ferocious erosion of the climatic elements of the plateau anatolia, little by little creating an unreal scenery populated with formation stony improbable, own of the world of the dreams that of the real one. As well, the men have taken part to torment still more these landscapes, drilling their entrails to carve churches and monasteries, pestering the rock walls and grounds to construct to labyrinth underground cities. The rock architecture reaches in the Cappadocia its apotheosis
Day 1: Istanbul - Ankara. Flight with destiny Ankara, via Estambul. Overnight in hotel.
Day 2: Ankara - Hattusa Yozgat - Bogazcale: 310 km. Visit to Anatolian Civilization Museum in Ankara , whch is one the most beautiful and richest museums in the world with regard to its exhibits. Visit to Hattusas; the capital of Hitites; the former city of Anatolia (XIX-XII BC.) Overnight in hotel.
Day 3: Hattusa - Amasya: 196 km. Yazilikaya; open air temple of Hitites. Alacahoyuk; National Commercial Center of Hitites. A short break in Corum. Amasya; The realm city of ottomans. Overnight in hotel.
Day 4: Amasya - Trabzon: 470 km. The most important historical place in Trabzon of course Sumela Monastery near Macka, It is situaded on the top of the mountain of Ponto. Overnight in hotel.
Day 5: Trabzon - Kars: 450 km. Drive to Kars became a capital of Armenian dynasty and this importance lasted during the Ani and visit the ancient churches of Ani. View of the Arpa River, which forms the border to Armenia. Overnight in hotel.
Day 6: Kars - Van: 368 km. Visit the pleasure palace of Ishak Pasha, often called the taj Mahal of Turkey. Ishak Pasha Palace built towards the end of the 18th century. We may have a nice view of Mt Ararat. We will pass small villages at the base of mountain. Mount Ararat is the highest mount of Anatolia. (5165 m) Drive to Van. Van (Tushpa) was the capital of Urartians. Overnight in Hotel.
Day 7: Van - Diyarbakır: 387 km. Akdamar is a small island far from 4 km to the shore and visit the Gevas , it is located on the road between Van - Tatvan. Overnight in hotel.
Day 8: Diyarbakır - Urfa: 200 km. Visit the Urfa. The city of prophets and culture of arab-mezopotamia . Pool of holy fishes. Visit the cave where prophet Abraham was born. .Drive to village of Harran, city of prophet Abraham. See fortress, islamic school and curious beehive-shaped adobe houses. Overnight in hotel.
Day 9: Urfa - Adıyaman - Kahta: 180 km. Nemrut tumulus was constructed by the most important king Antiacus I. Nemrut is the highest point 2100 m of region. Overnight in Hotel.
Day 10: Adıyaman - Malatya - Cappadocia: 437 km. Drive to Malatya , is modern city of Turkey Ruins of Eufrates were exhibited in the archeology museum , they dated back neolithic and chalcolitic period. Overnight in hotel.
Day 11: Cappadocia - Soganli. After breakfast, drive to the underground city of Ozluce (Zeylia) Christians used the underground city at IV century as refuge to save of the persecutions. Drive to valley of Soganli for a colorful bond with innumerable chapels, churches, houses and tombs. Possible to see follow the development of the byzantine painting between the VI and XII centuries you can see dove -cotes and daily life of the typical town of Anatolia. (Excursion 2- 3 h.) Overnight in Hotel.
Day 12: Cappadocia - Kizil Vadi (Red Valley) Goreme. After breakfast, drive to imagination valley (Devrent), where the stone eroded by the wind forms denominated tips, cones and obeliscos fairy chimneys. The valley of the monks (Pasabagi). The Kizil Vadi valley (Red) is amazingly beautiful, specially during the daytime. Then is the Uzumlu Church of century IX. Overnight in hotel.
Day 13: Cappadocia via Istanbul. Transfer to Kayseri (ASR) Flight to Istanbul.
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Middle East Turkey History Whiz Archeology/History